新型冠状病毒 novel coronavirus / new strain of coronavirus 呼吸道疾病 respiratory diseases禽流感病毒 avian influenza virus密切接触者 close contacts潜伏期 incubation period
疑似病例 suspected case确诊病例 confirmed case得get/catch pneumonia接受医学观察 under medical observation
流行病学调查 epidemiological investigation病毒爆发 virus outbreak遏制疫情爆发 contain the outbreak严格隔离政策 strict isolation policy携带病毒 carrying the virus
超级传染源 superspreader医疗费用报销 reimbursement for medical expenses 中国大部分地区口罩供应紧张 tight supplies in large areas of China 人传人 human-to-human transmission医务人员感染 infection of medical worker
①“冠状病毒”英文怎么说？coronavirus 冠状病毒 =corona+virus 冠状的+病毒而此次“新型冠状病毒”的英文是 novel coronavirus这里的 novel 不是“小说”而是一个形容词，表示“新型的”比如 a novel feature（新特性）例：
Before this outbreak, six coronaviruses had been identified in humans. Four caused relatively mild cold-like symptoms while the other two, Sars and Middle East respiratory syndrome (Mers), can be fatal.
coronavirus /kəˈronəvaɪrəs / 冠状病毒
这个词，可分解为两部分：corona：冠状物 （我们所说的 “日冕” 与 “光圈”，也是这个词）virus：病毒
Now，the fatal infectious disease caused by "Coronavirus" is called as "Chinese Pneumonia" on the Internet.现在，由于“冠状病毒”所引起的致命性传染病，在网络上被称之为“中国肺炎”。
fatal /ˈfeɪtl / ：a. 致命的；毁灭性的；灾难性的 （对于目前的状况来看，这的确是很丧的一个词儿！）
infectious disease/ ɪnˈfekʃəs dɪˈziːz / ：传染病infectious /ɪnˈfekʃəs /：a.传染的 由 infect （v. 传染；感染）+ ious（形容词后缀）构成infect / ɪnˈfekt /：v. 传染；感染 由 in （进入，使。。。）+ fect （做） 构成 ——咱可以想一下儿：传染或感染，不正是有害物质或病毒，侵入体内，对健康的肌体做坏事儿——进行破坏吗？infection / ɪnˈfekʃn /：n. 传染 由 infect + -ion （名词后缀）构成
pneumonia / nuˈmoʊnɪə / n. 肺炎这个词，是由 pneumon- （肺）+ -ia （疾病名词后缀）构成
1. the air by coughing and sneezing
2. close personal contact, such as touching or shaking hands
3. touching an object or surface with the virus on it, then touching your mouth, nose, or eyes before washing your hands
4. rarely, fecal contamination
②如何预防“冠状病毒”1. Clean hands with soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub.用肥皂或者用含酒精的洗手液洗手。
2. Cover nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing with tissue or flexed elbow.咳嗽或打喷嚏时，用面巾纸或屈肘捂住口鼻。
3. Avoid close contact with anyone with cold or flu-like symptoms.避免跟有感冒或流感症状的人密切接触。
4. Thoroughly cook meat and eggs.将肉类和鸡蛋彻底煮熟。
5. Avoid unprotected contact with live wild or farm animals. 避免在未加防护的情况下接触野生动物或家畜。
1. 什么是冠状病毒？What is a coronavirus? Coronaviruses are a large group of viruses that are common among animals. In rare cases, they are what scientists call zoonotic, meaning they can betransmitted (传播，动词) from animals to humans, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Coronavirus symptomsThe viruses can make people sick, usually with a mild to moderate upper respiratory tract (上呼吸道) illness, similar to a common cold. For those with a weakened immune system, the elderly and the very young, there's a chance the virus could cause a lower, and much more serious, respiratory tract illness like a pneumonia (肺炎) or bronchitis (支气管炎).There are a handful of human coronaviruses that are known to be deadly (致命的), such as Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and SARS (Severe acute respiratory syndrome).The Wuhan coronavirus is currently thought to be more mild than SARS and MERS and takes longer to develop symptoms. Patients to date have typically experienced a mild cough for a week followed by shortness of breath (呼吸急促). So far, around 15% to 20% of cases have become severe, requiring, for example, ventilation in the hospital.
3. 传播途径How it spreadsViruses can spread from human contact (接触) with animals.
When it comes to human-to-human transmission (传播，名词) of the viruses, often it happens when someone comes into contact with an infected person's secretions (分泌物), such as droplets (小水滴，飞沫) in a cough.Depending on how virulent the virus is, a cough, sneeze or handshake could causeexposure (暴露，接触). The virus can also be transmitted by touching something an infected person has touched and then touching your mouth, nose or eyes.
4. 感染人群Who is affected?MERS, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus appear to cause more severe disease in older people, though uncertainty remains around the latest outbreak (爆发). Of the cases of Wuhan coronavirus reported so far, none are yet confirmed to be among children. The average age is people 40 or over.
5.冠状病毒感染的治疗Coronavirus treatmentThere is no specific treatment, but research is underway. Most of the time, symptoms willgo away on their own (自行消失) and experts advise seeking care early. If symptoms feel worse than a standard cold, see your doctor.Doctors can relieve (缓解) symptoms by prescribing (开处方) a pain or fever medication.
6.武汉新型冠状病毒严重程度Should you worry about the Wuhan coronavirus？The Wuhan coronavirus fatality rate (致死率) is lower than for SARS and MERS, but stillcomparable (相当) to the 1918 Spanish flu pandemic (大流行病). The fatality rate is likely to be lower due to an "iceberg" of milder cases we are yet to find.
7.如何预防How can you can prevent it?You may be able to reduce your risk of infection (感染) by avoiding people who are sick. Try to avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth. Wash your hands often with soap and water and for at least 20 seconds.Awareness is key. If you are sick and have reason to believe it may be the Wuhan coronavirus due to travel to the region or coming into contact with someone who has been there, you should let a health care provider know and seek treatment early.Cover your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze, and disinfect (消毒) the objects and surfaces you touch.
WHO declares COVID-19 a andemic
Some coronavirus deaths misdiagnosed as influenza in US, CDC official says
As the World Health Organization declared the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak a global pandemic, countries around the world were called on to step up their efforts to combat the disease.
Meanwhile, the head of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said that some coronavirus deaths had been misdiagnosed as influenza in the US, suggesting that the virus has probably existed in the United States for some time.
Novel coronavirus pneumonia, which the WHO has named COVID-19, has spread to at least 118 countries and infected more than 125,000 people globally as of Thursday, according to WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus. Over the last two weeks, the number of cases outside China has increased 13-fold and the number of affected countries has tripled, the WHO announced at a news conference in Geneva on Wednesday.
Tedros said that the organization expects to see the number of cases, deaths and affected countries climb even higher in the days and weeks ahead.
"All countries can still change the course of this pandemic. If countries detect, test, treat, isolate, trace and mobilize their people in the response," said the WHO director-general. "We are deeply concerned by the alarming levels of spread and severity and by the alarming levels of inaction."
The WHO website defines a pandemic as "the worldwide spread of a new disease". It's the first time the WHO has called an outbreak a pandemic since H1N1 "swine flu" in 2009.
In a US House of Representatives hearing on the COVID-19 outbreak on Wednesday, Robert Redfield, director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said that some COVID-19 deaths have been misdiagnosed as influenza in the US.
Redfield was speaking in response to Representative Harley Rouda's question of whether such a misdiagnosis were possible in the US.
"The standard practice is the first thing you do is test for influenza, so if they had influenza they would be positive," Redfield said, adding that there has been "a surveillance system of deaths from pneumonia, that the CDC has; it's not in every city, every state, every hospital".
Since the outbreak started, some Western politicians and media have labeled COVID-19 as the "China virus" and stigmatize the global fight against COVID-19. In response, Redfield said that it was wrong to refer to the novel coronavirus as a "Chinese coronavirus", slamming the use of the term as racist and xenophobic.
At a news conference on Thursday, Foreign Ministry spokesman Geng Shuang said that since the outbreak of COVID-19, the Chinese government has taken the most comprehensive, thorough and rigorous prevention and control measures and waged a resolute fight against the epidemic.
"China's fight against the virus is an important part of the global containment," Geng said. "In the next step, China is ready to continue to maintain the domestic prevention and control efforts while at the same time making contributions to the global fight against the virus."
Geng also said that the origin of the virus is a scientific issue that requires professional and scientific evidence. He said the international community should work together instead of blaming each other, which is thoroughly unconstructive.
After downplaying the threat of the virus for days, US President Donald Trump announced Wednesday night in an Oval Office address that he is sharply restricting European passenger travel to the US and moving to ease the pandemic's economic costs.
In the address, Trump seemed to be blaming Europe for the increased novel coronavirus caseload in the US.
"To keep new cases from entering our shores, we will be suspending all travel from Europe to the United States for the next 30 days," Trump said, adding that the new rules will take effect on Friday at midnight.
The US president also said there will be exemptions for US citizens who have undergone screenings and that the travel restrictions do not apply to the United Kingdom.
Because of their quickly climbing COVID-19 case numbers, the US and Europe are coming to be seen as the new epicenter of the pandemic. According to the WHO, Italy had 10,149 confirmed cases as of Wednesday. By Wednesday, there had been more than 1,100 confirmed infections in the US and 32 deaths, according to a tally by Johns Hopkins University.
China reported a record low of just 15 new cases on Thursday and three-fourths of its infected patients have recovered.
The NBA became the first major US sports league to suspend play until further notice after a Utah Jazz player tested positive for coronavirus. In Italy, soccer club Juventus said defender Daniele Rugani tested positive. Actor Tom Hanks and his wife Rita Wilson said they had the virus. He had been working in Australia when they felt ill with slight fevers, his statement said.
Officials in Seattle announced that public schools would close for about 53,000 students and large gatherings were banned in San Francisco and in Washington state, the hardest-hit US state, with 29 deaths.